Adoni is one of the biggest and commercial towns in Rayalaseema and also in Andhra Pradesh State
In 1867 AD The Adoni Municipal Council was created, along with the Bellary Municipal Council. These were the only two municipal townships in the whole of Bellary district for a long time.

Adoni was under the rule of Yadavas in 16th century. At that time Adoni was known as Yadavagiri. Yadavagiri changed into Adavani under the Islamic rule. Later Adavani changed into Adoni. Muslims controlled this town until 1792, when a war between the British East India Company and Tippu Sultan resulted in its cession to the Nizam of Hyderabad. Under British rule Adoni was in Bellary district of Madras presidency.

Under the influence of British colonialism in the 20th century, Southern Indian was divided into several administrative districts; Adoni fell into the district of Bellary. The city gained its present seat as part of the state of Andhra Pradesh in 1953, when the British further divided the country by language of origin. While the city constantly shifted its governmental structure, it emerged as a trade hub as a product of its impressive bounties of grain and gold, along with cloth and textile production. Over the century, the city built up an entire industry of cotton mills, solidifying its place in the county’s modern trade economy.
Adoni has undergone a number of substantial changes over the past few centuries. Emerging as a military base for the Vijayanagara Empire in the 15th century, the city has evolved to become a modern, manufacturing hub. Under the Vijayanagara, the city stood at the center of the consolidating of a shifting, fragmented countryside into a more disciplined, structure empire. Even after the Empire fell in the 16th century, as a product of military conflicts, the city remained a core part of Southern Indian history.

In the wake of the shift, the Yadava caste became the dominant cultural force in the city with strong Vaishnavism Hindi influence. As a result, the city became known as Yadavagiri for centuries, until cultural changes led the population to adopt Islam in the following centuries. The city largely lacked organized self-rule until the mid 19th century, when the city organized a Municipal Council to give it a formal governing structure.

Adoni was under Bijapur in the period of 16th and 17th century. The people of almost every religion are present in Adoni, almost every language is spoken in Adoni.

In 1867 AD, The Adoni Municipal Council was created, along with the Bellary Municipal Council. These were the only two municipal townships in the whole of Bellary district for a long time.

On October 1, 1953, Bellary district of Madras State was divided on linguistic basis, and Adoni (along with Yemmiganur, Alur, Raayadurgam, D.Hirehaalu, Kanekallu, Bommanahaalu, and Gummagatta) were merged into Anantapuram and Kurnool district in what would later became the Andhra Pradesh state.

Of historical interest are the ruins of a royal fort dating back to the medieval kingdom of Vijayanagar, which flourished from the 14th to the 16th century. Several Persian and Arabic inscriptions which throw light on various aspects of historical interests are found here. Muslims later controlled it until 1792, when a war between the British East India Company and Tippu Sultan resulted in its cession to the Nizam of Hyderabad. Under British rule Adoni was in Bellary district of Madras state presidency.