It is 180 miles (300 km) from Hyderabad and 307 miles (494 km) from Chennai by rail. It has a population of about 2,43,247 people (of whole Adoni Mandal). Adoni is 245th biggest city in terms of population in India.

Once a stronghold of the medieval Vijayanagara Empire, today it has a substantial textile industry. The hill-fort, now in ruins, was an important seat of gover nment in Islamic times and is frequently mentioned in the wars of the 18th century. Adoni is located in the border of Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka. During British period Adoni was known as Second Mumbai as it is the hub for all types of businesses. As many rice mills are sealed due to some reasons, the production of rice is reduced. But still Adoni is the richest producer of cotton and it there is a big market yard in the town and hence the town is called as the Town of Cotton or Grain Market of South India.

The town enjoys a salubrious climate and has venerated monuments of all religions.

It is one of the Revenue divisions in the district. Adoni is also one of the Roads and Buildings (R&B), Panchayat Raj (PR) and Rural Water Supply (RWS) division amongst three in the district.